Házasság magyarul : Marriage in Hungarian

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As I just got married recently, I figured I would post some Hungarian vocab related to weddings! A huge thanks to @morietris for providing me with the correct translations! Keep in mind some of these words don’t have direct Hungarian translations, so all we have is the closest equivalent.

Click on the images to see the full picture!

Some notes: 

☆ férjhez megy – used when marrying a man. Literally means “going toward a husband”

☆ feleségül vesz – used when marrying a woman. Literally means “to take a wife”

☆ tanú – there isn’t a word for “best man” in Hungarian, so we use the same word for the groom’s witness

☆ anyakönyvvezető – this is the official title for the person who officiates weddings. Unlike in the U.S., you have to be a state employee – can’t just get a license online.

☆ esküvői parti / vacsora – the concept of a “reception” doesn’t really exist for Hungarian weddings. The closest thing you could say is “wedding party” or “wedding dinner”

☆ menyasszonyi ruha / esküvői ruha / menyecskeruha – the first two translate to “bridal dress” and “wedding dress” respectively. The third one is a dress that the bride typically changes into at midnight.

☆ fogadalmak – Hungarian weddings don’t typically have wedding vows, but this is a direct translation. The singular is “fogadalom” (it has an irregular plural).

Let me know if you have any questions!

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[Hungarian] Instrumental Case: -val/-vel

The instrumental case in Hungarian is quite simple. It is essentially used to mean “with“, and the two basic uses are to designate what you use to do something, and who you’re accompanying at a time.

Forming the Instrumental

  • back-vowel word: -val
  • front-vowel word (including rounded): -vel

There is a quirk to this case though. The above endings only apply if the word ends in a vowel (in which case you would also lengthen said vowel if it is a or e). If the word ends in a consonant, then the v changes to that consonant, therefore doubling it.

For example:

I am with my mother → Az | anyám + -val | vagyok

Anyám (my mother) and -val (with) combine to form “anyámmal“, because the v changes to the last consonant (m).

Egy szék + -vel → Egy székkel (with a chair)

A macskám + -val → A macskámmal (with my cat)

Still pretty simple!


Uses of the Instrumental

As mentioned above, it basically functions as “with” in English.

  • to designate what you are using to do something (think “instrument” – instrumental)
  • to specify who is accompanying someone at a given time
  • to specify something accompanying something else

Egy villával eszik (Xe eats with a fork)

Az anyámmal vagyok  (I am with my mother)

Tegnap mentem oda a barátommal (I went there yesterday with my friend)

Csak citrommal iszik vizet (Xe only drinks water with lemon)

Travelling

A unique use of this case is that Hungarians use it to denote how they are travelling. Instead of saying someone “came by bus”, for example, you would say they “came with the bus”.

Busszal utazik (Xe travels by (lit. ‘with’) bus)

Miscellaneous Uses

Kiabál (to shout) – Kiabál a fiúkkal (xe shouts at the boys – lit. ‘with the boys’)

Beszél (to speak (to)) – Beszélek egy orvossal (I speak to (lit. ‘with’) a doctor)

There are many verbs that take the instrumental case, so here is a list !

[Hungarian Cases] Allative | Adessive | Ablative: VISUALS

I believe that visual references can be a great help in memorising concepts, and even more so when they’re absolutely ridiculous! Hopefully these can help you to remember the 3 cases above. If you still have any questions, feel free to message me! See the in depth explanation HERE.

Click the “read more”!

Continue reading “[Hungarian Cases] Allative | Adessive | Ablative: VISUALS”

[Hungarian Cases] Sublative | Superessive | Delative : VISUALS

I believe that visual references can be a great help in memorising concepts, and even more so when they’re absolutely ridiculous! Hopefully these can help you to remember the 3 cases above. If you still have any questions, feel free to message me! See the in depth explanation HERE.

Click the “read more”!

Continue reading “[Hungarian Cases] Sublative | Superessive | Delative : VISUALS”

[Hungarian Cases] Illative | Inessive | Elative : VISUALS

I believe that visual references can be a great help in memorising concepts, and even more so when they’re absolutely ridiculous! Hopefully these can help you to remember the 3 cases above. If you still have any questions, feel free to message me! See the in depth explanation HERE.

Also please ignore the little dialogue bubbles, it’s just me being stupid and funny and half of it isn’t even proper Hungarian.

Click the “read more”!

Continue reading “[Hungarian Cases] Illative | Inessive | Elative : VISUALS”

[Hungarian Cases] Allative | Adessive | Ablative

Allative | Adessive | Ablative

These three all go together as cases of movement involving solids. They function like the other two groups we studied, but with solids instead of spaces or surfaces.

Allative

  • back-vowel word: -hoz
  • front-vowel word: -hez ; -höz (rounded)

This, like the Illative case (-ba/-be), and the Sublative case (-ra/-re), means that something is moving. It is typically used with action verbs, rather than a static verb. The difference between Allative and the other two, is that Allative is talking about moving something TOWARDS something, instead of inside of or onto. Where “a szekrénybe” means “into the wardrobe”, and “a szekrényRE” means “onto the wardrobe”, “a szekrényHEZ” means TOWARDS the wardrobe. You are going in the direction of the wardrobe, but you have not arrived, and have no contact with it.

Use the allative when:

☆ you are going towards something

☆ you are going to someone’s house

☆ you are going to a PERSON (doctor/dentist/etc)

For example:

A polchoz megyek  → I go towards the counter.

A gyerek fut az anyához  → The child runs towards the mother.

A barátomhoz megyek  → I am going to my friend’s place. (lit. “I am going towards my friend”)

Nem szeretek a fogorvoshoz menni  → I don’t like going to the dentist. (lit. “towards the dentist”)

A tengerhez sétalok  → I walk towards the sea.

A simple way to think about it, is that Allative case goes towards something without ever going inside (whereas Illative means you’re actually going INTO something).

“A templomba megy” (I am going to church (going all the way inside))

“A templomhoz megy” (I am going towards the church (just going to the outside))

Now this sort of situation isn’t used very often, because there aren’t frequent times one goes to a place just to stay outside of it. But if you have trouble remembering the difference between -ba/-be and -hoz/-hez/-höz, this is a helpful way to look at it (for me, anyway).


Adessive

  • back-vowel word-nál
  • front-vowel word-nél

This is essentially the static version of the Allative case. Nothing is moving, instead something is currentlyBESIDE or AT something. It is typically used with static verbs.

Use the inessive when:

☆ you are AT or BESIDE the place where you were going towards

☆ you are making a comparison

For example:

Polcnál vagyok  → I am by/at the counter.

A gyerek az anyánál van  → The child is by the mother.

A barátomnál vagyok  → I am at/by my friend’s place. (can also just mean “my friend”)

A fogorvosnál vagyok  → I am at the dentist.

A tengernél állok  → I stand by the sea.

Comparisons:

When you are saying something is more X than X, you use -nál/-nél.

Ő erősebb nálad  → Xe is stronger than you.

Petra szebb annál a lánynál →  Petra is prettier than that girl.

A barátom fiatalabb az apámnál  → My friend is younger than my dad.


Ablative

  • back-vowel word-tól
  • front-vowel word: -től

Think of this as the reverse of the Allative case (-hoz/-hez/-höz). Instead of going towards something, you are going AWAY from something (a solid).

Use the elative when:

☆ you are going AWAY from the place you were at

For example:

Polctól megyek  → I am going away from the counter.

A gyerek az anyától fut  → The child runs from the mother.

A barátomtól megyek  → I am going away from my friend’s place (can also just mean “my friend”)

A fogorvostól jövök  → I am coming (away) from the dentist.

A tengertől sétalok  → I walk away from the sea.

[Hungarian Cases] Sublative | Superessive | Delative

Sublative | Superessive | Delative

These three all go together as cases of movement involving surfaces. They function like the Illative/Inessive/Elative, but with surfaces instead of spaces.

Sublative

  • back-vowel word-ra
  • front-vowel word-re 

This, like the Illative case (-ba/-be), means that something is moving. It is typically used with action verbs, rather than a static verb. The difference between Sublative and Illative case is that Sublative is talking about moving something ONTO something, instead of inside of. Where “a szekrénybe” means “into the wardrobe”, “a szekrényRE” means “onto the wardrobe”.

Use the sublative when:

☆ you are on your way to a Hungarian city (other cities use the Illative case, Hungarian cities use Sublative)

☆ you are moving something onto something

☆ you are getting onto most forms of public transport (bus/plane/metro/train, etc)
*for cars and minibuses you use Sublative (-ba/-be)

For example:

Megyek Budapestre  → I am going to Budapest.

Felszállok a buszra  → I am getting on(to) the bus.

A szekrényre tettem a játékot  →  I put the toy on(to) the wardrobe.

Az asztalra tettem a könyvet  → I put the book on(to) the table.

Leülök a kanapéra  →  I sit down on(to) the couch/sofa.

Leülök a székre  → I sit down on(to) the chair.


Superessive

  • ending in a vowel: -n (make sure to lengthen the vowel!)
  • back-vowel word-on
  • front-vowel word-en ; -ön (rounded)

This is essentially the static version of the Sublative case. Nothing is moving, instead something is currently on a surface. It is used with static verbs, and functions the same as the Inessive (-ban/-ben), except we are talking about currently being on something instead of inside of something. While “a szekrényben” means “inside the wardrobe”, “a szekrényEN” means “ON the wardrobe”.

Use the superessive when:

☆ you are currently IN a Hungarian cities (other cities use Inessive case)

☆ something is currently ON TOP of something

☆ you are currently in/on most forms of public transport (bus/plane/metro/train, etc)
*for cars and minibuses you use Inessive (-ban/-ben)

For example:

Budapesten vagyok   I am in Budapest.

Buszon vagyok   I am on the bus.

A játék a szekrényen van   The toy is on the wardrobe / There is a toy onthe wardrobe.

A könyvt az asztalon van   The book is on the table / There is a book on the table.

Ülök a kanapén  → I am (currently) sitting on the couch/sofa.

Ülök a széken   I am (currently) sitting on the chair.

Notice the difference? No one is moving or doing anything, the Superessive case merely states a current position of being on something (a surface, typically). Note that the direct object is now the subject in these sentences, and is thus in the Nominative case, and not the Accusative.


Delative

  • back-vowel word-ról 
  • front-vowel word-ről 

Think of this as the reverse of the Sublative case (-ra/-re). Instead of getting on or putting something on something, you are coming OFF of something, or taking something OFF of something.

Use the delative when:

☆ you are leaving a Hungarian city (other cities use the Elative case)

☆ you are taking something off of something

☆ you are getting off of most forms of public transport (bus/plane/metro/train, etc)
*for cars and minibuses you use Elative (-ból/-ből)

For example:

Budapestről jövök   I am coming out of/from Budapest.

Leszállok a buszról   I am getting off of the bus.

Leveszem a játékot a szekrényről   I take the toy off of the wardrobe.

Leveszem a könyvet az asztalról   I take the book off of the table.

Felállok a kanapéról  → I get up from/off of the couch/sofa.

Felállok a székről   I get up from/off of the chair.

Notice that the subject in the Superessive version is now the direct object again, and thus in the Accusative case, because something is being done to it once more.